“The DeLand Sport Aviation Showcase (DSAS), conducted from November 14-16, 2019 at the DeLand Municipal Airport in Florida, has completed a careful look at ticket sales, gate receipts, exhibitor numbers and other data… and is happy to report that the 2019 Showcase eclipsed the 2018 attendance by over 20%,” reported lead organizer, Jana Filip. “Sport aviation is alive and well… and the truly dedicated flyers out there simply would not let some clouds and sporadic rain keep them from seeing and sharing in all that was new and interesting in the sport aviation universe,” explained Jana. At the fourth running of Deland Showcase, organizers boasted 26 companies new to the event. They had earlier reported a sold-out exhibitor slate. Jana will study attendee and exhibitor reports and will then confirm dates for the 2020 edition of the DeLand Showcase. A decision is expected shortly. Duc Propellers USA Also a Success “Designed in France.
Duc Hélices (props)
Deals, Dreams, & PartiesInfinity Power Parachutes — We shot a video interview with Frank Williams of Infinity Power Parachutes. He is taking over the company from Alvie Wall but the founder will stay involved to help. They've been working together as Frank transitioned into the business. We reviewed the current line-up of Infinity models. Their Challenger is a single place, Rotax 503-powered, true Part 103 aircraft that sells ready-to-fly complete with big off-runway tires, 375 square-foot canopy, and engine instrumentation for mere $17,000. Given the average price of a new car in America is now reported at $33,000, I'd said Challenger qualifies as a bargain aircraft. You may not think of yourself as a powered parachute pilot but my personal experience is these aircraft offer the best visibility in aviation combined with slow flying speeds (30s mph) that allow you thoroughly absorb the view. The two Commander models are powered either by the Rotax 582 (65 horsepower) or the Rotax 912 (80-100 horsepower). These tandem two place aircraft use a 500 or 550 square-foot canopy. Like Challenger, Infinity offers the two Commanders as ready-to-fly Special LSA. Delivery takes only four weeks and your aircraft will be delivered factory test-flown. All Infinity models use a dual three-inch angle beam structure that provides exceptional strength. Frontal bars preferred by some pilots are not needed for structural integrity, said Frank. Titan Aircraft T-51 — On Day One, I wrote about Titan Aircraft's sleek two place kit called Tornado. Today I want to show you an image of their subsequent — but completely different — T-51, a Mustang replica that is amazingly true to form. Look for yourself. I had quite the experience flying the original prototype many years back and I can attest this is one interesting flying machine. I've also flown in a striking Stewart P-51 lookalike powered by a 450-horsepower Corvette engine but I've never gone aloft in a full military North American P-51 with 1,695 horsepower. However, for capable kit builders T-51 can deliver an intense sensation of nostalgia and a taste of what it must have been like for hundreds of twenty-something fighter jocks in World War II. Hoo, rah! Although T-51 is not a Light-Sport Aircraft, it was released in the same year of the very first SLSA acceptances by FAA, 2005. Duc Propellers USA — After reliving my vivid Mustang experience I needed to relax. What better way to do that than to attend the Duc Propellers grand opening party celebrating the French prop maker's new USA headquarters at the Sebring airport. The new facilities will provide North American sales, service, and maintenance for the Duc line of props. A spacious hangar has been leased at Sebring with offices and work areas provided by the airport. Lead by their capable outreach man, Michael Dederian, Duc has made great inroads into the Light-Sport and Sport Pilot Kit space. At the kick-off party, Duc assembled an impressive number of airplanes from the Expo — each fitted with Duc props, of course — providing a mini-airshow right outside their quarters. I estimate around 250 attended their party, which was very professionally organized and catered. Go, Duc!
As Day Three arrived, blue skies returned to Sebring after a damp start on Day Two and with them came the best crowds of pilots and companions of any day so far …by far. As you see in the lead photo (home page), crowds were often so thick around aircraft that a picture barely showed the flying machine. It was a fun if chilly day and the mood of pilots and aircraft reps was upbeat. I was also informed that a number of paid sales went down and prospects are talking seriously about other purchases. Most aircraft vendors know a purchase of this size may warrant additional thought post-event but clearly some customers had come ready to deal. For years I’ve maintained that sector-specific shows like Sebring produce more sales per visitor than the big shows. Neither pilots nor vendors can miss Sun ‘n Fun or Oshkosh and still claim to be true-blue aviators.
Enter MulticoptersThe little single place Kitty Hawk Flyer pictured above is one of several examples. Qualifying as a Part 103 ultralight, it may also be a multicopter you can actually buy and fly in the near future. Those many breathless stories in mainstream media about autonomously flown air taxis may paint a very different, possibly exciting image of the future of flight, but they may also be years, or decades, away. Vehicles like Kitty Hawk's Flyer could get to the market much sooner, assuming FAA throws up no roadblocks — I don't see the agency doing that, drones have registered more than a million units giving FAA extra duties but also knowledge, and leverage. Indeed, the drone/multicopter development must be music to the regulators' ears. Multicopters are also music to ears of prop makers. While Sensenich sells many propellers to Florida's air boat operators (who wear props out faster than an airplane), Duc Hélices has jumped into the rotorcraft and multicopter market. Good for them! More revenue from tech-billionaire-supported companies means more business for Duc, which should help them keep innovating for the light aircraft sector we all love. Look again at the Flyer. Here's a small, light, single-place aircraft with — count 'em — ten props whirring in dizzying circles. Ten props per plane! "Now we're talking," exclaims the boss!
Duc Hélices NewsAt the Aero Friedrichshafen 2018 show in Germany, Duc Propellers lifted the veil on their latest innovation as they presented a prototype of rotors for multicopters …eVTOLs, flying car, air taxis, and who knows what next. Last spring, Duc Hélices announced, "Our new branch, dedicated to the design and the realization of helicopter and multicopter rotors, is running at full speed." The company added, "A very large investment was required to finance four years of studies for the development of multicopter blades." They cited a new propeller production press and a series of qualification and validation tests including "form control; mechanical analysis of tensile strength/flexion/torsion; vibration tests; tests of aging; and fatigue." Complete and ready, Duc Propellers Company now offers literature and products for:
- Complete rotors for multicopter (composite blades and hub rotor head)
- Helicopter blades (up to 9 meter or 29.5 foot diameter)
- Full anti-torque rotor (RAC blades in composite and hub)
One More (New) ThingDuc Hélices has enjoyed considerable success in the U.S. market, thanks to persistent effort at airshows by their capable Michael Dederian. At LSA events these days, I see two brands all the time: Sensenich from Plant City, Florida and Duc Hélices from Frontenas, France. To better serve their growing U.S.market, Duc will open a new facility at the Sebring, Florida airport. To celebrate, Duc Propellers USA will host an official opening party in Hangar C2 (442 Hendricks Field Way). People attending the event are invited at 6 PM on Friday January 25, 2019. To confirm or ask questions about the kick-off party, contact Mrs. Héloïse Jonda at her email address.
Imagine you are in charge of marketing for French propeller manufacturer, Duc Hélices. The boss stops by your office and asks, “How are we going to sell more props?” You begin to cite statistics (maybe even this website and its market share data). With more worldwide sales of LSA and LSA-like aircraft (chart), sales could be good, you say. Successful twin engine airplanes like Lockwood’s AirCam or Tecnam‘s Twin that swing two propellers per aircraft certainly add to sales. (Rotax enjoys this, too.) Yet in the tech world, a 10% or 20% increase is nothing. Those hard-charging Silicon Valley companies have gotten used to things improving by orders of magnitude. “How can we increase sales by ten times,” demands the boss? “Well, hmmm…” you thoughtfully reply, “I think I have an idea.” Enter Multicopters The little single place Kitty Hawk Flyer pictured above is one of several examples.
Who Is Succeeding?In one day, we did not speak to every vendor and we did not get to the inside booths yet. However, those we did approach for news and updates provided feedback that was significantly on the positive side. Here is a partial recap (again cautioning that this is not inclusive): Icon Aircraft's production engine appears to be firing on all cylinders, according to Tampa Regional Sales Director Scott Rodenbeck. We heard about delivery numbers growing from five aircraft a month to 10 a month and a forecast for 15 shipments in December. These numbers will show up on our market share report based on N-number registrations. Increased production has reduced the delivery wait to only seven or eight months, down from literally years back when the California company was taking deposits left and right but not yet manufacturing. Bristell USA is having a banner year that should end close to 20 units sold for the deluxe and superbly equipped Bristell LSA, reported company leader Lou Mancuso and right hand man, John Rathmell. Beside delivering strong sales for Czech producer, Milan Bristela, Lou's growing enterprise is also establishing a flight academy at the Sebring airport to offer younger pilots a lower cost path to careers as pilots. We will have video on this development. Duc Hélices is another company choosing Sebring for their operation, reported Michael Dederian, the company's main face at airshows — after a few seasons nearly all producers know him. The popular French prop maker is opening a subsidiary in early 2019 to better serve U.S. customers. They plan to celebrate the American enterprise at the Sebring Sport Aviation Expo on January 25th. Van's Aircraft made a big change this year. After bringing in ready-to-fly manufacturing to the world's largest manufacturer of aircraft kits — the immensely popular RV line — Van's is backed up for nearly a year, reported Atlanta-based, Vic Syracuse. That wait may come down as the company ramps up its new in-house production, but it's clear RV-12 is a success story. We recorded an interview with Vic about the new model, now known as RV-12iS. Yes, it uses the Rotax engine but that's not all the changes in the renewed model. Paul Mather of M-Squared Aircraft is opening new doors. He continues to build his M-Squared models as he has for many years but now the longtime veteran of light aircraft manufacturing has diversified to provide builder assistance to owners wanting a Zenith CH-750 Cruzer powered by the Continental Motors O-200D engine. After a slow start activity has picked up and Paul is pleased with the aircraft he's added to his stable. We plan a Video Pilot Report using the model seen at DeLand Chip Erwin of Aeromarine-LSA also reported growing sales for his well-priced, fast-assembling Merlin PSA (Personal Sport Aircraft). Besides sales to customers, he is using the single place aircraft for some government duties and these activities are keeping the Florida businessman on the move, literally, and from a business evaluation. We shot a video with Jay Kurtz of South Lakeland Airport (which many Sun 'n Fun attendees know very well). After building 40 (yes, 40!) aircraft, his most recent project has been the Quick-Build Merlin. After just a single day, I'm excited to see what happens in two more days of the DeLand Showcase 2018. Look for another report tomorrow.
Day One of the third running of DeLand Showcase is complete. As Videoman Dave and I scoured the show grounds looking for good stories, we spoke to a few vendors reporting that 2018 has been a good year. Our video news gathering exercise brought a pleasant discovery. Many companies are reporting a solid year of sales. The light aviation industry is composed of many small companies. None are corporations the size of Cessna or Cirrus so they don’t require hundreds of unit sales to break even. A U.S. importer delivering 20 aircraft can experience a good year from sales and other services they offer. When several companies report noteworthy sales success it suggests the market is healthy and customers are buying airplanes they want to enjoy. In parallel, the used LSA market also appears active and a virtuous circle begins to take form. The show itself enjoyed the great organization we have come to expect from director Jana Filip.
What Sets Apart Rotorvox?Structurally, the C2A is largely carbon-fiber monocoque construction. This is notably different than the majority of smooth-looking gyroplanes. Most are steel structure with a composite pod. Rotorvox's fuselage is also engineered to provide a protective cell for the occupants. A few other side-by-side seating gyroplanes are on the market, including Cavalon from AutoGyro, the far and away market leader. Rotorvox's version employs the carbon structure to provide such seating, which means it can double as a very inexpensive air ambulance. Entry is also different with a forward-hinged, three-piece canopy. Above the occupants, you see a faired pylon that supports a two-blade aluminium rotor pushed by a Rotax 914 turbocharged engine swinging a three-blade prop. As with nearly all modern gyroplanes, Rotorvox's rotor offers hydraulic pre-rotation before takeoff. Another big departure from most gyroplanes are flat-sided tail booms separated from the fuselage on lateral structures. Each boom supports a tapered fin and rudder with ventral fins. C2A has a short-legged, wide track tricycle undercarriage that should aid ground stability. The main gear uses trailing link main gear with elastomer shock absorption. Rotorvox reports two prototypes were flown during five years of development before C2A deliveries began in October 2014.
- Seating — Side by side
- Length — 18 feet fuselage; rotors 27.5 feet)
- Width — 7.24 feet
- Height — 9.3 feet
- Gross weight — 1,235 pounds
- Fuel capacity — 24 gallons
- Powerplant — Rotax 914 turbo 115 horsepower (limited duration) / 100 horsepower continuous
- Main rotor diameter — 27.5 feet, two aluminium blades with NACA 8H12 airfoil
- Propeller: 3-blade, 69 inch diameter
- Cruise speed: 90 mph / 78 knots
- Never-exceed speed: 102 mph / 89 knots
- Range: 375 statute miles / 324 nautical miles
- Endurance maximum — 6 hours
Besides LSA seaplanes, one area of furious development (and sales) is gyroplanes, the term modern industry prefers to “gyrocopter,” which was actually a branded name used since the days of Igor Benson. A new player, arriving on the scene about five years ago, is Rotorvox. Americans have not seen this aircraft but will soon get an opportunity at Sun ‘n Fun 2018 at Booth #30 in Paradise City. Demonstration flights will occur throughout the week. What Sets Apart Rotorvox? Structurally, the C2A is largely carbon-fiber monocoque construction. This is notably different than the majority of smooth-looking gyroplanes. Most are steel structure with a composite pod. Rotorvox’s fuselage is also engineered to provide a protective cell for the occupants. A few other side-by-side seating gyroplanes are on the market, including Cavalon from AutoGyro, the far and away market leader. Rotorvox’s version employs the carbon structure to provide such seating, which means it can double as a very inexpensive air ambulance.
BasicMed and Focused ShowsBy another view, the push by AOPA and EAA for BasicMed appears to have hardly affected Light-Sport Aircraft interest. In fact, BasicMed may be helping. While new opportunities now exist for older pilots to keep flying their older GA airplanes, BasicMed (see earlier article with comments) has enough hoops to jump through that some are obviously electing to continue using their driver's license paired with their existing pilot certificate to fly Light-Sport Aircraft. Putting a finer point on it, I believe the reaction of many pilots demonstrates that a brand-new, affordable, high-tech, roomy, and well-performing LSA holds genuine appeal. Sebring is the granddaddy of these LSA, light kit, and ultralight shows. It has spawned similar events like the Midwest LSA Expo and the DeLand Showcase plus it has inspired shows like Copperstate and Arlington to keep a focus on more affordable, recreational aircraft. These new events are no challenge to the majors such as Sun 'n Fun (starting in barely over two months) and AirVenture Oshkosh but they have clearly won a place in the airshow circuit. Some find it curious that three of the best shows for these events are in Florida but the state is obviously a national center for recreational flying. Weather at Sebring was good this year although fairly windy on a couple of the days. However, plenty of flying still occurred and the gyroplanes in particular appeared to have no problem with the conditions. Even the Ford Trimotor * — one of two flying examples remaining — flew steadily, cancelling operations only on one afternoon. The number of exhibitors at Sebring, the volume of attendees and the seriousness of these pilots about buying, plus the range of aircraft options — in both types and cost — is but one part of the success story that is Light-Sport and experimental amateur built aircraft. For more about the continuing success of the Sport Pilot/LSA concept FAA introduced almost 14 years ago, read this article. As the last sentence suggests, the Sebring Expo owes some of its success to jumping in as LSA debuted on the aviation stage. Mike Willingham reported that while Expo has not profited from the show itself the event has nonetheless been a success for the airport by putting it squarely on the aviation map and by helping to attract several new tenants including the large facility operated by leading LSA purveyor Tecnam. (Watch for our interview with Tecnam COO, Giovanni Pascale Langer in the weeks ahead.) * For more about this fascinating corrugated metal aircraft from the 1920s, go here.
The fourteenth running of the U.S. Sport Aviation Expo is history and if this is how the rest of the year goes, I predict a stronger year for LSA sales. Vendors were smiling by the end of the show and a good many customers are now anticipating a shiny new aircraft in their hangar. Based on my unscientific survey of vendors, I would estimate at least 15 aircraft sales and possibly more as I did not query every vendor. Of course, airshow promises don’t always materialize but regardless of the precise number, it was amply clear that Sebring — and similar focused-venue shows that confine themselves to LSA, light kits, and ultralight — still offer their magic in putting customers and sellers together. Several vendors told airport executive Mike Willingham about having “pages” of solid leads. Even non-LSA exhibitors such as Cirrus reported to him that they found good prospects at the show.
Day two of the year’s first show, Sebring was a bit cooler and windier but still a fine day as the photos show. I would guess crowds were as good or better than yesterday not even counting a large contingent of ROTC candidates visiting for the day. Zenith continued to garner lots of attention for their supersized SuperDuty CH-750 variant. Larger wings (six feet more span) and tail feathers are mated to a common 750 fuselage (construction time for which has been reduced through higher tech). The SD is powered by an Aero Sport Power IO-375 producing 205 horsepower. The show example was a three seater that grosses at 1,900 pounds. An 1,100 pounds empty results in an 800 pound useful load. This is the model with the distinctive Unpanel™ instrument system that works like a swivel-mounted flat screen TV in your living room (but better because it’s in your airplane).
Interested in Chipper?Not only are Belite's performance numbers for the Chipper shaping up well, the purchase price has also remained within the "affordable aviation" range. Here's a few figures:
- $10,495 — taildragger airframe kit (1,000 pound gross, 80-horsepower max)
- $11,995 — taildragger airframe kit (1,200 pound gross, 100-horsepower max)
- $2,595 — taildragger finishing kit (1,000 pound gross, 80-horsepower max)
- $2,995 — tricycle gear finishing kit (1,000 pound gross, 80-horsepower max)
- $3,195 — taildragger finishing kit (1,200 pound gross, 100-horsepower max)
- $3,695 — tricycle gear finishing kit (1,200 pound gross, 100-horsepower max)
This pricing is locked in with your $500 deposit, but you must take delivery this year.
- 5 gallon fuel tanks —” $900 per pair
- 14 gallon fuel tanks — $1,400 per pair
- Any Radiant instruments with purchase of a Chipper kit — 25% discount. James said, "This does not include the radio, transponder, or ELT, but you can put together a very nice Radiant panel for less than $1,000."
- Belites recommend Oratex fabric (see video) and DUC Hélices propellers.
- Some items, such as engine cowls for either Rotax engine or engine mounts will be determined later.
- Prices do not include: engine, propeller, mount, cowl, instruments, fabric, paint, glue, etc.
Belite entrepreneur James Weibe has successfully used his tech industry background to raise interest for his latest project, this time his first two seater called Chipper. (It was named Pipper but that apparently energized the anxieties of Piper Aircraft lawyers so James altered the name.) James has informed his Facebook and email readers with continual updates. After making initial flights fairly recently, he has judged the aircraft able to make a cross country flight. Chipper uses power from the 912 Rotax, but rather than the more common 100-horsepower ULS model, James is using one of my favorites, the 80-horsepower, regular-autogas-burning version. I like it because for lighter aircraft, such as Chipper, this 912 has plenty of power and it is about as trouble-free as any aircraft engine I’ve ever flown. “I flew Chipper to Angel Fire, New Mexico,” James exclaimed. “I flew nonstop one way (960 miles roundtrip) from Wichita, Kansas to Angel Fire, performed flight tests, and then returned to Marion, Kansas before the sunset.” Now that’s a good day’s flying.
Not Going to France?
The good news is, DUC props are available in the USA thanks to SportairUSA. You know this brand for their aircraft, including Sting, Sirius, and Zlin Outback and Shock but they are a full service supplier. The Arkansas company said, "SportairUSA is the United States distributor for DUC Propellers, the industry-leading forged carbon propellers from DUC Helices. There are models of DUC propellers suitable for light sport aircraft, ultralights, powered parachutes and experimental aircraft." Plus, how about this offer? "Guaranteed Satisfaction — If your airplane does not perform better with the DUC propeller, return it within 30 days for a full refund," assured people at SportairUSA. That is a remarkably sure way to know you are buying the right prop for your airplane. SportairUSA lists some of your choices in props from DUC. Swirl (photo above) is a simple, ground-adjustable propeller that performs like a complex constant-speed prop. "It is the propeller of choice for faster airplanes," said SportairUSA. How can that be? "Without movement or twisting of the blades DUC's Swirl propeller has a constant speed effect… [because] the prop takes a slimmer bite under load, and a fatter bite when cruising, without the need for complex electro-mechanical adjustments." Windspoon (lower photo) is for slower aircraft (speeds up to 80 knots for engines up to 120 horsepower). SportairUSA explained, "With its revolutionary shape [that] offers unrivaled performance, Windspoon is the ideal solution for trikes and similar aircraft." For more detail including specifications and prop ordering information, visit SportairUSA's dedicated prop page.
If you live in France or are traveling to the country (soon!), you might want to join the party… the DUC Propellers party, that is. It is happening in a few days. In December 2016 DUC Propellers moved new facilities (nearby photo) to be closer to the airfield for tests and to have a more spacious infrastructure to expedite development. To celebrate their new quarters, on Saturday, June 24th, 2017, DUC Propellers announced they will “organize an exceptional party to celebrate the inauguration of our new location on the Villefranche-Tarare Aerodrome (LFHV) in Frontenas, France.” They plan a big event with more than 500 guests expected along with participation of many operators from the airfield. “Lot of guests will arrive all long the day by plane but the party will officially start at 8 p.m. with the visit of the new facilities, a photoBooth on flying topics, a Beaujolais culinary discovery, a cocktail dinner, a music DJ, and some animations throughout the night,” said DUC representatives.
- Floatwing — removes the need for external high drag support geometries, and provides high stability
- Merged Hull Geometry — fuselage has an aerodynamic forward geometry merged with the boat hull further back for minimizing drag on the boat hull section
- Electric Motor — gives us smooth aerodynamics and lower weight at the same time; we get all the bulk and weight down in the hull for optimized stability in water
- Laminar Flow — drag is kept low over all with a laminar flow fuselage, canopy and airfoils
- Internal Combustion Engine — WST KKM 352 Wankel producing 57kW (76 horsepower) weighing 99 pounds (45 kg)
- Generator — Engiro G60 producing 60kW, water cooled weighing 33 pounds (15 kg)
- Electric Motor — Engiro M97 Electric producing 97 kW (130 horsepower) weighing 71 pounds ( 32 kg)
AirMax SeaMax — Icon A5 — Vickers Wave — MVP — Lisa Akoya… you only need look at the best promoted brands to see that arguably the most innovative ideas in light aircraft are coming from the LSA seaplane sector. Each of these is a great example of visionary engineering. Others LSA or light kit seaplane developments — Searey, Mermaid, ATOL Avion, Aero Adventure, among others — are somewhat more conventional but that’s reassuring to some potential buyers. All these names have one enormous advantage. They have practical field experience. Of the five in the first paragraph, only SeaMax has a longer period of use by owners in regular operation. Now consider Equator Aircraft P2 Xcursion, an electric hybrid seaplane with several compelling ideas. I wrote about this in an article two years ago; now we have an update.
In my experience, pilot love learning about engines. Yet without a prop, that engine may run fine, but nothing happens to the airplane other than converting a tank of fuel into noise. To get up and go, you gotta have a prop. How about a beautiful composite one? DUC Hélices New Factory — French propeller manufacturer DUC Hélices moved its facility late in 2016, relocating from Lentilly to Frontenas on the Villefranche-Tarare Airfield. Last year marked a turning point in the evolution of DUC Propellers, the company said. A relocation project was launched in April 2016 with the primary goal to move the company to the Villefranche-Tarare aerodrome to be at the heart of its business. “This move will allow [us] to expand our premises and modernize further. The move started in November of 2016 and an inauguration or grand opening will be completed by spring 2017.” Shortly after the big move, DUC was pleased to welcome engineering students from Centrale Lyon Engineering School the new site at the Villefranche-Tarare Airfield (LFHV) for a presentation of the facilities and DUC’s design and manufacturing activities (nearby photo).
Article Updated 9/7/15 — See new information at the bottom of this article. Coming up TOMORROW! — September 8-9-10, 2016 — is the Midwest LSA Expo. I’m on-site for all three days in Mt. Vernon, Illinois. More info: Midwest LSA Expo. Only six years after Steve Jobs proudly announced the first iPad, the tablet device seems to have fully conquered aviation. Airline captains routinely use iPads in lieu of bulky printed instrument charts. GA airplane owners with analog panels commonly use an iPad to join the digital revolution without needing to get FAA’s permission. And, LSA developers often accommodate the iDevice; indeed, some Light-Sports make do solely with iPads, occasionally multiple devices. Despite his visionary prowess, I bet Steve Jobs never imagined such a result. Unfortunately, he didn’t live long enough to see the cockpit transformation his gizmo caused. However, if you’ve flown with an iPad, you know you need some way to hold it that allows access to its wealth of information without interfering with airplane operation.